On Thursdays, every week, we introduce you to a fresh new artist. This being the last week of the year, we take the opportunity to review the young talent that we have had the pleasure of presenting to you over the last few months.
They have come from varied backgrounds and from various parts of India. Their works can be seen in detail, with a complete write-up on them, in the Gallery section of our website.
Here, we proudly present to you, again:

PRIYARANJAN PURKAIT – Priyaranjan Purkait holds an M.F.A. from Rabindra Bharati University. Born in 1984, this talented young artist has picked up a slew of awards and accolades. With an eye for detail and a passion that is evident in his work, this young artist has caught our attention and we are happy to showcase him in our Gallery.

SOURAV HALDAR – Sourav is a young sculptor (born in 1986) living in 24 Parganas (South). He completed his Bachelor’s and Master’s degree in Visual Arts from the Govt College of Art and Craft in 2012 and 2014 respectively. He has won the Prodosh Dasgupta Award at his college in 2009. He was also awarded a Certificate of Merit by the Academy of Fine Arts, in 2010.

APARNA MOHINDRA – Aparna completed her Diploma in Photography in August 2013 from Apex Academy for Photographic Excellence and has been the youngest recipient of the Neel Dongre Grant (2013) which culminated in to the project “Millennium Dreams” that has been exhibited at the India International Centre, Alliance Française de Delhi (Gurgaon centre) and Cyber Hub Gurgaon.

SANANDA DATTA – SANANDA DATTA was born in 1993 and, despite her young age this enterprising artist has clocked up a slew of exhibitions including the Annual Exhibition of GCAC in 2012, SFI student unit Exhibition in 2012, Rabindra Parishad exhibition in2012, Annual exhibition of GCAC in 2013, Annual exhibition of  GCAC in2014, Wings group exhibition in 2014, ‘Group 13’ exhibition in 2014, Annual exhibition of GCAC in2015, and attended a Workshop at SANTINIKETAN in the Mural Department in 2015.

SANTANU DEBNATH – Santanu Debnath graduated in Visual Arts, in Painting, from the Govt College of Art and Craft in Agartala, Tripura. He has been exhibited in the SPA First State Art Exhibition, Agartala, in 2014; Fresh Marks Group Exhibition, in 2015; Barak National Art Fair, Silchar, in 2015; the Annual Exhibition of the Govt College of Art and Craft, Agartala, in 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015.

SUBHRADIP SAHA – Subhradip Saha completed his Bachelor of Visual Art degree (BVA) in Painting in 2015, from the Government College of Art and Craft, Agartala, Tripura under Tripura University. He has also participated in exhibitions such as Group 13, in 2013 and Fresh Marks, in 2014-15.

Do visit all their works and complete profiles in the Gallery section of our website.

As the months and weeks rolled by we added further artists to our stables and we are extremely happy with their work and enthusiasm. They have added their own unique spark to our Gallery and given us the impetus to continue bringing you fresh talent from all over the sub-continent.

Visit the Gallery section of our website to see the complete profiles and the works of these young artists:

PARTHA BANIK – Partha Banik is a promising product of the Govt  College of Art & Craft, Agartala, Tripura, where he took his Bachelor’s degree in Fine Art in Painting. He then went on to the Chamarajendra Academy of Visual Art in Mysore for his Master’s degree. He does not believe in the overuse of colours and objects and wants to get his feeling across with the minimal of artifice. He also believes that words are images and therefore uses words in his paintings.

DEV RAMPRAKASH – We know Dev as a special child who has his own way of looking at the world and interacting with it. He sees things in the way others don’t. Dev was born in 2005 and has Down’s Syndrome. He lives with his parents in Gurgaon, Haryana, India. He loves to play on his iPAD, iPod and computer. He also loves cycling and swimming.

Dev is growing up under the watchful and loving care of his devoted parents Parul and Ram. Working as and when he pleases, Dev has, nonetheless, produced work regularly and of consistent quality. Dev paints with his fingers and there are no brush strokes in his paintings. He has been exhibited in Delhi where his artworks drew great admiration.

PAPPU DEBNATH – Pappu is a fresh young talent from the North-eastern state of Tripura. A product of the Govt College of Art and Craft, Agartala, under Tripura University.

Pappu earned his Bachelor in Visual Arts in 2015. He has picked up awards like that at the Annual Exhibition of GCAC in 2013 and in 2015; and at the Tripura Rabindra Parishad in 2014.

He has participated in several significant exhibitions.

GANGOTREE DASGUPTA – Gangotree Dasgupta is a fresh talent in her twenties, and hails from the Bengali stronghold of Silchar in Assam. She qualifies as a Bachelor of Visual Arts in Sculpture and lists sewing, stitching and dancing as her hobbies.

Gangotree loves to travel where she can intermingle with the downtrodden and marginal communities and take photographs to her heart’s content. Her experiences help her to bring freshness and new ideas to her compositions.

BIPLAB GHOSH – Biplab Ghosh is a young painter from Agartala, Tripura. Biplab completed his Bachelor of Visual Arts in Drawing and Painting from the Govt College of Art and Craft, in 2013. He subsequently completed his Masters in Fine Arts (Drawing & Painting) from Tripura University.

Born in 1989, this young painter has already participated in several exhibitions where his works have won wide admiration. Biplab Ghosh’s works are political statements. “Politics is power,” says Biplab, “and present society is dependent on this power. Society runs behind it, for its own sake.”


Silk Line: Exhibition


6th Nov – 31st Dec


10:00am – 06:00pm


DakshinaChitra, East Coast Road, Near MGM Dizee World, Muttukadu, South, Chennai

The renowned artist from Chennai, K.G. Narendrababu will be showcasing an exhibition titled Silk Line exhibition of collages on woven silk and paintings. Born in Tamilnadu, 1963, he completed his Diploma and Post Diploma in Painting from Government College of Arts and Crafts, Chennai. His works are mostly by acrylic on canvas and the artist loves to paint what he dreams. The artist mostly used to paint in black and white before making a transition to colour and his details and small element compositions and brush strokes are simply brilliant.

D. Selvakumar Art Exhibition



30th Dec – 1st Jan


11:00am – 07:00pm


La Galerie D’Expression, The Ambassador Pallava, 30, Montieth Road, In The Ambassador Pallava Hotel, Egmore, Central, Chennai

The popular art gallery at Hotel Ambassador Pallava will be showcasing a painting exhibition by the prolific painter from Chennai. D.Selvakumar. Born on 18th July 1968. He is qualified in M.A.in Arts and M.B.A. The professional artist mainly focusses on portrait painting and figurative paintings. He has also won an award through Makkal Kural Magazine in 2014.

Catch the exhibition live.



Origami from ori meaning “folding”, and kami meaning “paper” (kami changes to gami due to rendaku) is the art of paper folding, which is often associated with Japanese culture. In modern usage, the word “origami” is used as an inclusive term for all folding practices, regardless of their culture of origin. The goal is to transform a flat sheet square of paper into a finished sculpture through folding and sculpting techniques. Modern origami practitioners generally discourage the use of cuts, glue, or markings on the paper. Origami folders often use the Japanese word kirigami to refer to designs which use cuts, although cutting is more characteristic of Chinese papercrafts.

The small number of basic origami folds can be combined in a variety of ways to make intricate designs. The best-known origami model is the Japanese paper crane. In general, these designs begin with a square sheet of paper whose sides may be of different colors, prints, or patterns. Traditional Japanese origami, which has been practiced since the Edo period (1603–1867), has often been less strict about these conventions, sometimes cutting the paper or using nonsquare shapes to start with. The principles of origami are also used in stents, packaging and other engineering applications.

Basic folds of Origami

How Origami started

Distinct paperfolding traditions arose in Europe, China, and Japan which have been well-documented by historians. These seem to have been mostly separate traditions, until the 20th century.

In China, traditional funerals often include the burning of folded paper, most often representations of gold nuggets (yuanbao). The practice of burning paper representations instead of full-scale wood or clay replicas dates from the Sung Dynasty (905–1125 CE), though it’s not clear how much folding was involved.Traditional Chinese funeral practices were banned during the Cultural Revolution, so most of what we know about Chinese paperfolding comes from the modern-day continuation of these practices in Taiwan.

In Japan, the earliest unambiguous reference to a paper model is in a short poem by Ihara Saikaku in 1680 which mentions a traditional butterfly design used during Shinto weddings.Folding filled some ceremonial functions in Edo period Japanese culture; noshi were attached to gifts, much like greeting cards are used today. This developed into a form of entertainment; the first two instructional books published in Japan are clearly recreational.

In Europe, there was a well-developed genre of napkin-folding, which flourished during the 17th and 18th centuries. After this period, this genre declined and was mostly forgotten; historian Joan Sallas attributes this to the introduction of porcelain, which replaced complex napkin folds as a dinner-table status symbol among nobility. However, some of the techniques and bases associated with this tradition continued to be a part of European culture; folding was a significant part of Friedrich Froebel’s “Kindergarten” method, and the designs published in connection with his curriculum are stylistically similar to the napkin fold repertoire.

When Japan opened its borders in the 1860s, as part of a modernization strategy, they imported Froebel’s Kindergarten system—and with it, German ideas about paperfolding. This included the ban on cuts, and the starting shape of a bicoloured square. These ideas, and some of the European folding repertoire, were integrated into the Japanese tradition. Before this, traditional Japanese sources use a variety of starting shapes, often had cuts; and if they had colour or markings, these were added after the model was folded.

In the early 1900s, Akira Yoshizawa, Kosho Uchiyama, and others began creating and recording original origami works. Akira Yoshizawa in particular was responsible for a number of innovations, such as wet-folding and the Yoshizawa–Randlett diagramming system, and his work inspired a renaissance of the art form. During the 1980s a number of folders started systematically studying the mathematical properties of folded forms, which led to a rapid increase in the complexity of origami models.

Types of Origami

Action Origami

Origami not only covers still-life, there are also moving objects; Origami can move in clever ways. Action origami includes origami that flies, requires inflation to complete, or, when complete, uses the kinetic energy of a person’s hands, applied at a certain region on the model, to move another flap or limb. Some argue that, strictly speaking, only the latter is really “recognized” as action origami. Action origami, first appearing with the traditional Japanese flapping bird, is quite common. One example is Robert Lang’s instrumentalists; when the figures’ heads are pulled away from their bodies, their hands will move, resembling the playing of music.

Two examples of modular Origami

Modular Origami

Modular origami consists of putting a number of identical pieces together to form a complete model. Normally the individual pieces are simple but the final assembly may be tricky. Many of the modular origami models are decorative balls like kusudama, the technique differs though in that kusudama allows the pieces to be put together using thread or glue.

Chinese paper folding includes a style called Golden Venture Folding where large numbers of pieces are put together to make elaborate models. It is most commonly known as “3D origami”, however, that name did not appear until Joie Staff published a series of books titled “3D Origami”, “More 3D Origami”, and “More and More 3D Origami”. Sometimes paper money is used for the modules. This style originated from some Chinese refugees while they were detained in America and is also called Golden Venture folding from the ship they came on.


Wet folding

Wet-folding is an origami technique for producing models with gentle curves rather than geometric straight folds and flat surfaces. The paper is dampened so it can be moulded easily, the final model keeps its shape when it dries. It can be used, for instance, to produce very natural looking animal models. Size, an adhesive that is crisp and hard when dry, but dissolves in water when wet and becoming soft and flexible, is often applied to the paper either at the pulp stage while the paper is being formed, or on the surface of a ready sheet of paper. The latter method is called external sizing and most commonly uses Methylcellulose, or MC, paste, or various plant starches.


Pureland origami

Pureland origami adds the restrictions that only simple mountain/valley folds may be used, and all folds must have straightforward locations. It was developed by John Smith in the 1970s to help inexperienced folders or those with limited motor skills. Some designers also like the challenge of creating within the very strict constraints.


Origami tessellations

Origami tessellation is a branch that has grown in popularity after 2000. A tessellation is a collection of figures filling a plane with no gaps or overlaps. In origami tessellations, pleats are used to connect molecules such as twist folds together in a repeating fashion. During the 1960s, Shuzo Fujimoto was the first to explore twist fold tessellations in any systematic way, coming up with dozens of patterns and establishing the genre in the origami mainstream. Around the same time period, Ron Resch patented some tessellation patterns as part of his explorations into kinetic sculpture and developable surfaces, although his work was not known by the origami community until the 1980s. Chris Palmer is an artist who has extensively explored tessellations after seeing the Zilij patterns in the Alhambra, and has found ways to create detailed origami tessellations out of silk. Robert Lang and Alex Bateman are two designers who use computer programs to create origami tessellations. The first international convention devoted to origami tessellations was hosted in Brasília (Brazil) in 2006, and the first instruction book on tessellation folding patterns was published by Eric Gjerde in 2008. Since then, the field has grown very quickly. Tessellation artists include Polly Verity (Scotland); Joel Cooper, Christine Edison, Ray Schamp and Goran Konjevod from the USA; Roberto Gretter (Italy); Christiane Bettens (Switzerland); Carlos Natan López (Mexico); and Jorge C. Lucero (Brazil).



Kirigami is a Japanese term for paper cutting. Cutting was often used in traditional Japanese origami, but modern innovations in technique have made the use of cuts unnecessary. Most origami designers no longer consider models with cuts to be origami, instead using the term Kirigami to describe them. This change in attitude occurred during the 1960s and 70s, so early origami books often use cuts, but for the most part they have disappeared from the modern origami repertoire; most modern books don’t even mention cutting.

Dollar bill elephant, an example of moneygami


As this is Christmas Day, we thought of getting into the Yuletide spirit with all of you, our readers – but with the accent on art. This is a Christian festival, but popular the world over, and Christianity has given the world a great amount of fantastic art – right from the early era of the religion.

The fruition, however, happened in the time of the Renaissance – when painting reached new heights in the hands of masters who are revered for all time.

The great painters of the Renaissance period, many of whom focused on religious themes were often commissioned by well-to-do patrons including the Pope himself. Religion was infiltrated in everyday life in this era, deeply resonating with both the painters and those they worked for. Many of these religious paintings are among the greatest works of Renaissance art as a whole.

Wedding at Cana by Paolo Veronese

The Wedding at Cana (or The Wedding Feast at Cana) by Paolo Veronese is an oil on canvas that was painted in 1563 for the Benedectine Monastery of San Giorgio Maggiore in Venice. It depicts the Biblical Wedding Feast at Cana where according to the New Testament, Jesus performed his first miracle by turning water into wine. The Biblical story, however, is set into Veronese’s time although some figures are depicted wearing antique clothing. It is said that Veronese painted himself among the 130 participants of the wedding feast (clothed in white with a viol next to Titian and Bassano). The painting with dimensions of 666 cm x 990 cm (262 in x 390 in) is displayed in the Louvre Museum in Paris.

The School of Athens by Raphael

One of four frescoes by Raphael in the so-called Raphael Rooms in the Apostolic Palace in Vatican was painted by the Italian Renaissance artist between 1509 and 1511. The School of Athens revels Raphael’s interpretation of philosophy as a divine form of knowledge, with Plato and Aristotle placed in the center of the scene, just like Jesus is in the centre of Paolo Veronese’s The Wedding at Cana. In total, twenty-one ancient Greek philosophers are painted, engaging in lofty discourse. Raphael’s fresco doesn’t have religious character as such but its location within a Greek cross-shaped building in Vatican has been interpreted as an attempt to reconcile Christianity and pagan philosophy.


The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci

The mural on the back wall of the dining hall of the Dominican convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan, Italy, was painted from 1495 to 1498. It differed from other frescoes of the era in that da Vinci created it by using experimental pigments directly on the dry plaster wall. But even before it was finished, it suffered from paint flaking off the wall. Da Vinci repaired the damage but it continued to crumble and was inadvertently damaged over the years both by the effects of time and unfortunate events such as Napoleon’s troops using the wall for target practice and the 1943 bombing which destroyed the room’s roof and exposed the fresco to the weather elements. Not much of the original painting survived and what can be seen today are mainly repairs.


The Creation of Adam by Michelangelo

The famous fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican City was painted from 1511 to 1512. Unfortunately, Michelangelo’s masterpiece and one of the most famous works of both High Renaissance and religious art suffered from candle smoke damage, going back for centuries, which caused the fresco to darken and assume a gloomy shadow. In the 1980s, the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel went through an extensive restoration which revealed colours and details that were hidden for centuries. The restoration, however, has also caused a great deal of controversy among art historians.

Madonna del Prato (also known as Madonna of the Meadow) by Raphael

The artist painted this oil on board in 1505 whilst he was in Florence; though the painting is now housed in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, Austria. Madonna del Prato, also known as Madonna of the Meadow depicts Virgin Mary looking down to baby Jesus and his cousin John the Baptist who is kneeling and offering a cross to Jesus. The painting was created for Taddeo Taddei and remained in the Taddei family until 1660s when it was sold to Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Austria.

Salome with the Head of Saint John the Baptist by Bernardino Luini

Salome with the Head of Saint John the Baptist was painted by Bernardino Luini in the first half of the 16th century. The painting depicts a scene from the Gospel of Mark, when Salome demands the head of John the Baptist for having danced before King Herod and his guests. The King who promised to give her anything she wants, reluctantly agreed and had John the Baptist beheaded in the prison. Luini’s painting shows the moment when her request is met. The painting is displayed in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston.

San Zaccaria Altarpiece by Giovanni Bellini

This oil on canvas was painted by Giovanni Bellini in 1505. It is one of the finest examples of the so-called sacra conversazione or “sacred conversation” which was developed by Renaissance Italian artists and replaced the rigid polyptych form of the earlier periods. Virgin Mary with the baby Jesus in the centre are depicted with four Christian saints – St. Peter the Apostle and St. Catherine of Alexandria at the left, and St. Gerome and St. Lucy at the right – and an angel playing a violin at the foot of the altar. The painting is housed in the San Zaccaria church in Venice, Italy.

Pesaro Madonna by Titian

Created from 1519 through 1526, the painting depicts the Virgin and the Child on the top of a raised platform. The commissioner of the painting, Jacobo Pesaro is shown kneeling before the Virgin and presented to her by Saint Peter. The red banner with papal arms is held by an unknown knight who also holds two Muslin prisoners, probably symbolizing Pesaro’s success as the commander of the papal fleet. At the right is depicted Saint Francis of Assisi who presents five kneeling members of the Pesaro family to baby Jesus. Titian made the painting for Pesaro chapel in the Frari Basilica in Venice where it remains until today.

The Last Judgment by Hieronymus Bosch

The triptych that was created by the Dutch painter sometime between 1505 and 1510 consists of three panels: the left panel depicts the Garden of Eden with Adam and Eve being tempted by the Serpent on the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, the central panel depicts the Last Judgment with Jesus on the throne as the judge of the world, while the right panel depicts the Hell which is thematically very similar to the central one. But instead of Jesus, it includes the Satan who receives the souls of the damned. Bosch’s triptych is currently owned and displayed in the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna.

The Tower of Babel by Pieter Bruegel the Elder

Like its name suggests, Bruegel’s painting depicts the Biblical Tower of Babel which was built by the unified humanity with an aim to reach the heaven. Angered by the building project, God decided to prevent it by scattering the people throughout the world and confusing their languages so that they were unable to return and continue from where they left off. The painting that was created in 1563 can be seen in the Kunsthistorishes Museum in Vienna.




Sanjoy Patra (b.1974) completed BFA and MFA in Painting from Kala Bhavan, Visva Bharati. Santiniketan. He received many awards and scholarships: the  Academy Award from  Academy of Fine Arts, Kolkata (1996, 1997, Best Exhibit); the Governor Awards from Academy of Fine Arts (All India Annual Exhibition) – 2005; National Scholarship from HRD Centre in Delhi 1998 – 1999; and  Visva Bharati Scholarship from Visva Bharati, Santiniketan 1998 – 2002. He also participated in many shows and workshops:  group exhibition at Academy of Fine Arts in Kolkata in 2005; group exhibition of “Young Contemporaries-2007” in Aakriti Art Gallery, Kolkata, curated by Jogen Chowdhury; National Exhibition in Delhi in 2005, Visva Bharati Student and Teacher Workshop “Samhita” in 2002; and national level Seminar cum Workshop, Delhi College of Art, Delhi – 2003, 2004. Sanjoy lives and works in Delhi.


EVENT IN DELHI : Picturing Time – Exhibition

18th Dec – 31st Dec
11:00am – 07:00pm
Ojas Art, 1A, Qutab Minar, Near State Bank Of Patiala, MG Road, Gurgaon, Delhi NCR

Anubhav Nath, curates a solo photo exhibition depicting the work of veteran photographer – Raghu Rai.  The work will portray a collection of 50 of his chosen photographs narrating a story of 50 years of his photography journey. The images have been especially handpicked to suit the artistic palate of the Indian Art Connoisseur.

In these 50 years of his career, Raghu Rai has won numerous National as well as International accolades for his work. The exhibition will display clicks depicting stills of traditional and contemporary India as well as some city specific photographs.

EVENT IN CHENNAI : Stories Of Architecture: Exhibition

1st Dec – 30th Dec
10:00am – 07:00pm
Apparao Galleries, No. 7, Wallace Garden, 3rd Street, Near Taj Hotel, Nungambakkam, Central, Chennai

A multifaceted contemporary art exhibition called Stories of Architecture will take place at the premium art gallery featuring paintings inspired by architecture. The line up of eminent painters from various parts of the country includes Dhanush Kodi, Ritendra Roy, Anjali Reddy, Chelapathi Rao, and Lalit Sharma. These artists, over the years, have used monuments, buildings, structures and ruins to depict in their work.


Tempera – Duccio_The-Madonna-and-Child

One word that often crops up in art is tempera or tempera painting. The mode is also called egg tempera. Tempera is an ancient medium used in most of the world’s cultures until it was superseded by oil painting. That happened during the Renaissance in Europe.

Tempera is a permanent, fast-drying painting medium consisting of coloured pigments mixed with a water-soluble binder medium (usually a glutinous material such as egg yolk). Tempera also refers to the paintings done in this medium. Tempera paintings are very long lasting, and examples from the 1st centuries AD still exist. A paint consisting of pigment and glue size commonly used in the United States as poster paint is also often referred to as “tempera paint,” although the binders and sizes in this paint are different from traditional tempera paint.

Tempera on Papyrus – Egypt_The Book Of The Dead

Tempera was the original mural medium in the ancient dynasties of Egypt, Babylonia, Mycenaean Greece, and China and was used to decorate the early Christian catacombs. It was employed on a variety of supports, from the stone stelae (or commemorative pillars), mummy cases, and papyrus rolls of ancient Egypt to the wood panels of Byzantine icons and altarpieces and the vellum leaves of medieval illuminated manuscripts.

The Virgin of Vladimir – Byzantine, 11th century – Tempera on wood

True tempera is made by mixture with the yolk of fresh eggs, although manuscript illuminators often used egg white and some easel painters added the whole egg. Other emulsions—such as casein glue with linseed oil, egg yolk with gum and linseed oil, and egg white with linseed or poppy oil—have also been used. Individual painters have experimented with other recipes, but few of those have proved successful; all but William Blake’s later tempera paintings on copper sheets, for instance, have darkened and decayed, and it is thought that he mixed his pigment with carpenter’s glue.

Distemper tempura painting

Distemper is a crude form of tempera made by mixing dry pigment into a paste with water, which is thinned with heated glue in working or by adding pigment to whiting (a mixture of fine-ground chalk and size). It is used for stage scenery and full-size preparatory cartoons for murals and tapestries. When dry, its colours have the pale, matte, powdery quality of pastels, with a similar tendency to smudge. Indeed, damaged cartoons have been retouched with pastel chalks.

Egg tempera is the most-durable form of the medium, being generally unaffected by humidity and temperature. It dries quickly to form a tough film that acts as a protective skin to the support. In handling, in its diversity of transparent and opaque effects, and in the satin sheen of its finish, it resembles the modern acrylic resin emulsion paints.

Fragmentary Shroud with a Bearded Young Man Egypt 120-150 CE Tempera on linen

Traditional tempera painting is a lengthy process. Its supports are smooth surfaces, such as planed wood, fine set plaster, stone, paper, vellum, canvas, and modern composition boards of compressed wood or paper. Linen is generally glued to the surface of panel supports, additional strips masking the seams between braced wood planks. Gesso, a mixture of plaster of paris (or gypsum) with size, is the traditional ground. The first layer is of gesso grosso, a mixture of coarse unslaked plaster and size. That provides a rough absorbent surface for 10 or more thin coats of gesso sottile, a smooth mixture of size and fine plaster previously slaked in water to retard drying. This laborious preparation results in an opaque, brilliant white, light-reflecting surface similar in texture to hard flat icing sugar.

The design for a large tempera painting was traditionally executed in distemper on a thick paper cartoon. The outlines were pricked with a perforating wheel so that when the cartoon was laid on the surface of the support, the linear pattern was transferred by dabbing, or “pouncing,” the perforations with a muslin bag of powdered charcoal. The dotted contours traced through were then fixed in paint. Medieval tempera painters of panels and manuscripts made lavish use of gold leaf on backgrounds and for symbolic features, such as haloes and beams of heavenly light. Areas of the pounced design intended for gilding were first built up into low relief with gesso duro, the harder, less-absorbent gesso compound also used for elaborate frame mouldings. Background fields were often textured by impressing the gesso duro, before it set, with small, carved, intaglio wood blocks to create raised, pimpled, and quilted repeat patterns that glittered when gilded. Leaves of finely beaten gold were pressed onto a tacky mordant (adhesive compound) or over wet bole (reddish brown earth pigment) that gave greater warmth and depth when the gilded areas were burnished.

Colours were applied with sable brushes in successive broad sweeps or washes of semitransparent tempera. Those dried quickly, preventing the subtle tonal gradations possible with watercolour washes or oil paint; effects of shaded modelling therefore had to be obtained by a crosshatching technique of fine brush strokes.

According to the Italian painter Cennino Cennini, the early Renaissance tempera painters laid the colour washes across a fully modelled monochrome underpainting in terre vert (olive-green pigment), a method later developed into the mixed mediums technique of tempera underpainting followed by transparent oil glazes.

The luminous gesso base of a tempera painting, combined with the cumulative effect of overlaid colour washes, produces a unique depth and intensity of colour. Tempera paints dry lighter in value, but their original tonality can be restored by subsequent waxing or varnishing. Other characteristic qualities of a tempera painting, resulting from its fast-drying property and disciplined technique, are its steely lines and crisp edges, its meticulous detail and rich linear textures, and its overall emphasis upon a decorative flat pattern of bold colour masses.

The Virgin and Child with Saints and Allegorical Figures – about 1315–20 – Giotto di Bondone – about 1267–1337 – Tempera and gold leaf

The great Byzantine tradition of tempera painting was developed in Italy in the 13th and 14th centuries by Duccio di Buoninsegna and Giotto. Their flattened picture space, generously enriched by fields and textures of gold leaf, was extended by the Renaissance depth perspectives in the paintings of Giovanni Bellini, Piero della Francesca, Carlo Crivelli, Sandro Botticelli, and Vittore Carpaccio. By that time, oil painting was already challenging the primacy of tempera, Botticelli and some of his contemporaries apparently adding oil to the tempera emulsion or overglazing it in oil colour.

Ben Shahn – Church Goers

Following the supremacy of the oil medium during succeeding periods of Western painting, the 20th century saw a revival of tempera techniques by such U.S. artists as Ben Shahn, Andrew Wyeth, and Jacob Lawrence and by the British painters Edward Wadsworth and Lucian Freud. It would probably also have been the medium of the later hard-edge abstract painters, had the new acrylic resin paints not proved more easily and quickly handled.

Andrew Wyeth – Maga’s Daughter – 1966 – tempera painting

Lucian Freud – Self-Portrait With a Black Eye

Closer home, in the early part of the 20th century, a large number of Indian artists, notably of the Bengal School, took up tempera as one of their primary media of expression. Artists such as Gaganendranath Tagore, Asit Kumar Haldar, Abanindranath Tagore, Nandalal Bose, Kalipada Ghoshal and Sughra Rababi were foremost. After the 1950s, artists such as Jamini Roy and Ganesh Pyne established tempera as a medium for the new age artists of India.

Gaganendranath Tagore – untitled

Asit Kumar Haldar – Mother – tempura

A_Tagore -The_Journeys_End – Wash and Tempera

Nandalal Bose – tempera on paper – 1937



Gaitonde_untitled – 1962 – Ink


In today’s segment on Art History we shall look at Indian art and the auctions where there are sold. This is because news has been made in this field with the highest price being paid for the work of an Indian artist.

The artist is the ‘intellectual’ painter Gaitonde, affectionately called “Gai” by those who were close to him. He is a master of the abstract and his paintings have been valued highly for many years. Since his death on 2001, his paintings have been selling for higher and higher sums.

But the highest price paid for a painting of his has now become the highest price paid for any painting created by an Indian artist. This record for Indian art was set by the untitled painting by Vasudeo Santu Gaitonde.

An artist of singular stature, modernist painter Vasudeo Santu Gaitonde (1924–2001) was known to fellow artists and intellectuals, as well as to later generations of students and admirers, as a man of uncompromising integrity of spirit and purpose. Born in Nagpur, India in 1924, Gaitonde was briefly affiliated with avant-garde collectives such as the Progressive Artists’ Group and the Bombay Group in the early ’50s. Nonetheless, he remained independent throughout most of his career. His output draws an arc from his early, figurative, mixed-medium compositions and watercolours inspired by Paul Klee, through his major bodies of signature canvases from the 1960s and ’70s, to his late works from the 1980s and ’90s. Departing from Klee, Gaitonde’s practice began in the late 1950s in a nonrepresentational mode—or, as he preferred to call it, a nonobjective style. This turn towards abstraction is in accordance with the artistic principles first espoused by Vasily Kandinsky, as is embodied by the Guggenheim’s origins as the Museum of Non-Objective Painting, and also dovetails with Gaitonde’s lifelong interest in Zen Buddhism.

Short, stocky, self-critical, and confident, Gaitonde scorned sentimentality in his biography and his artistic practice. As fellow painter Krishen Khanna has stated, “There’s a very strong correlation I see between the way Gaitonde thought, the way he lived, and the way he painted.” Alongside art, he was an avid admirer of Indian and Western poetry, cinema, literature, theatre, and classical music. Stressing the importance of the present moment, the completeness and joy of the creative process, and the intimate relationship between painter and painting, “Gai,” as he was popularly known among peers, was an intrepid and influential artist whose career remains unequalled in the history of South Asian modern art. Yet Gaitonde remains sorely understudied in the genealogies of twentieth-century world art. Gaitonde’s is known for his extraordinary use of colour, line, form, and texture, as well as symbolic elements and calligraphy, in works that seem to glow with an inner light.

Gaitonde’s work spans the traditions of nonobjective painting and Zen Buddhism as well as Indian miniatures and East Asian hanging scrolls and ink paintings. When looking at Gaitonde’s oeuvre within the wider related context of international postwar art, one can also draw parallels to artists working within the contemporary School of Paris, as well as movements such as Art Informel, Tachisme, and Abstract Expressionism. Yet Gaitonde’s output continues to be defined by the particular ethos of India, where the artist lived and worked his entire life.

The full report of the auction and a bit about the artist can be read in this news report from Mumbai:



Gargee Ghosh graduated with a First Class in B.V.A. from the prestigious Government College of Art and Craft, Calcutta, in 2007. Born in 1980, this young and energetic artist went on to complete her Masters in 2010 where she stood First in the First Class. In 2013, she was empanelled as a designer at the Ministry of Textiles, Government of India. Gargee has had experience of working as an intern in the Art Section at the Indian Museum, Calcutta, since 2013.

In her short but achievement-filled career Gargee has already picked up noted awards, namely: the Percy Browne Award in 2004; and her College Award in 2006.

Gargee has participated in several exhibitions, and some of them are: the United Art Fair (1st edition), New Delhi, in 2012; Group show at Gallery Ragini, New Delhi in 2011; Group show at India Habitat Centre, New Delhi, in 2009, and 2011; Group show at Academy of Fine Arts, Kolkata, India, in 2010; Group show at ICCR Kolkata, in 2007; 76th Annual All India Fine Arts Exhibition, Academy of Fine arts, in 2011; 9th Bharat Bhavan International Biennial of Print Art 2011; 72nd Annual All India Fine Arts Exhibition, Academy of Fine Arts, 2007; Students’ Annual Exhibition 2004-2009 of Govt. College of Art&Craft, Kolkata.

Gargee has also had a 2-man show at titled “The Ordinary Inspires” at Gallery Ragini, New Delhi,in 2013.

This is what Gargee Ghosh has to say about her art:


My Works:

SOCIAL VIRUS: Gargee Ghosh

“Scholars believe that in ancient India, the women enjoyed equal status with men in all fields of life.

However, some others hold contrasting views. Works by ancient Indian grammarians such as Patanjali and Katyayana suggest that women were educated in the early Vedic period Rigvedic verses suggest that the women married at a mature age and were probably free to select their husband. Scriptures such as Rig Veda and Upanishads mention several women sages and seers, notably Gargi and Maitreyi.

The Indian woman’s position in the society further deteriorated during the medieval period when Sati among some communities, child marriages and a ban on widow remarriages became part of social life among some communities in India. The Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent brought the purdah practice in the Indian society. Among the Rajputs of Rajasthan, the Jauhar was practiced. In some parts of India, the Devadasis or the temple women were sexually exploited. Polygamy was widely practiced especially among Hindu Kshatriya rulers. In many Muslim families, women were restricted to Zenana areas.

Throughout ages women in India have faced gruesome atrocities. One side of history shows the faith among “Shakti” or the Women Power” to be the strongest energy. The other side of history is coloured in black, grey shades of dowry, child marriage, sati and other related malpractices.

Hinduism defines woman to be a man’s half-batsman. It is clearly indicated and symbolized through “Shiv Shakti” that a man is incomplete without a woman. Holi books have preached equality of both sexes. But even in today’s ultramodern India the situation remains the same as it was centuries ago.

As a woman I have chosen the beautification material (bangles) of women, to directly in my art. Though are referred to as chains from the ancient times, it is now a feminine object of fashion. I have used the broken glass bangles as symbol of women’s exploitation as a form of virus, which generates diseases like Sexual harassment, Dowry, Child marriage, Female infanticide and Sex selective abortions, Domestic violence, and Sexual harassment.”

EVENTS IN DELHI AND NCR : Maharanis – Women of Royal India

Maharanis – Women of Royal India is on display from December 6th to Jaunary 7th at Sanskriti Museums Anandgram, MG Road.

A travelling exhibition dedicated to the royal ladies!

Indian royalty has always been known for their charm and poise, but more often than not, we only hear tales of brave kings and their glorious armies. What about the princesses and Maharani’s though? The beautiful and intelligent women who took charge of courts and palaces while the husbands were away fighting battles deserve to be celebrated as well. So Tasveer and Sanskriti Museums have put together a photography exhibition at Sanskriti Museums Anandgram that does just that! Focussing on the Maharanis and other royal women of erstwhile princely India, it’s a part of Tasveer’s 10th anniversary celebrations.

There are about 69 works on display at the gallery along with the launch a book of the same name. A portfolio of 20 ready to mount works will also be available on sale at the venue.

Maharani – Royal Women of India includes images from the archives of the Museum of Art & Photography along with items from the Victoria & Albert Museum and the National Portrait Gallery in London besides the Amar Mahal Museum & Library in Jammu.

Getting a portrait made was a tradition that was followed for a long time with the royal artist capturing the splendour and spectacle of court life. Around 19th century, paintings were replaced by photographs as they were much more accurate. Most of the images on display now are very old and the photographers are unknown, but they are a window into a long lost world. Some of the known names include Shatrujit Singh, Khem Bhonsle and Martand Singh.

With this exhibition, you’ll see royal women breaking through the clichés while accepting the modernisation that came with the British era. The one aspect that we couldn’t help notice was how each of them had their own sense of style with chiffon sarees and exquisite jewellery on full display. Among our favourites are Princess Indira Devi of Kapurthala (1930), Nawab Begum Sajida Sultan of Bhopal, the Begum of Pataudi (1940), Rajkumari Shrimati Tillotama Raje Bhonsle of Sawantwadi, and Rani Hemalata Raje Sahiba of Jind (1937). Of course, no mention of the ethereal royal women can be made without Maharani Gayatri Devi, who has several photos in this exhibit including one where she’s seen talking to villagers in her province (1962).


11th Dec – 20th Dec


11:00am – 07:00pm


Arpana Art Gallery, 4/6, Siri Fort Institutional Area, Opposite Siri Fort Auditirum Gate No. 2, Khel Gaon, South, Delhi NCR

CAMERAunLIMITED brings to town a monochrome photo exhibition by six photographers – 36 Shades Of Grey. Through this exhibition, these six talented photographers exhibit their individual perception of the world around via evocative images.

Through this 9th exhibition of the series, the objective is to bring together established and upcoming photo enthusiasts. The event will feature works of – Monidipa Dey, a life-science post-graduate by education, a writer by profession and a photographer by passion. Photographer Niraj Gera, displaying his work through a breed of talented photographers. Rashmi Rai, who takes inspiration from 16th and 17th century Dutch and Italian masters like Claeszoon and Vermeer. Ravi Shail, an advertising professional as well as apainter, comeswith an inclination for the arts. Photographer Yatinder Kumar, a graduate from NIFT, has elements of sophistication, simplicity and strong visualisation in his work.